Stack #2595464

Question Answer

word study ch 3

Question Answer
Blockhouse Military a fortified structure with ports or loopholes through which defenders.
Governor The executive head of the state in the us.
General assembly The legislature in some states in the us.
Plantation A usually large farm or estate especially in a tropical or semitropical country.
Representative A person or a thing that represents another or other.
Investor To put money in use by purchase or expenditure in something.
Share A full of proper portion or part allotted or belonging.
Stock company A company or corporation whose capital is divided into shares.
Democratic Pertaining to or of the nature of democracy.
The place to which a person or thing travels.
Majority The greater part or number
Boundary Something that indicates bounds
Clergy The group or body or ordained
Equality The state or quality of being equal
Proprietor The owner of a business
Guidance The act of function of guiding
Pastor A slip of paper gummed on the back to be pasted
Patroon A person who held an estate in land with certain manorial
Policy A definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency
Access To estimate officially the value
To leave one country or region to settle in another
Estimate To form an approximate judgment or opinion
Expansion the act of process of expanding
Indentured servant A person who came to america and was placed under contract to work for another over a long period of time
Minority The smaller part or number a number part or amount forming less than half
Refuge Shelter or protection from danger
Epidemic Also epidemical affecting many persons at the time and spreading from person to person
Indigo A blue dye obtained from various plants

Thera 1/6 Anemia Anemia

Question Answer
Anemia profile global health problem, affects developed/developing countries, 25% world pop (3.5million USA); all stages of life, most unaware, sign of a disease, not disease by itself.
Anemia def Hb concentration in blood is below a defined level, resulting in reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of RBCs or decreased RBCs. Men <13g/dl women<12g/dl
Causes of Anemia: kinetic approach/ Morphologic approach K:mechanism for decrease in Hb Concentration; M: alterations in RBC size and reticulocyte response.
Kinetic Approach Deceased RBC production or Increased RBC destruction: nutrient dificent/bone disorder/suppression of bone marrow/low levels of trophic hormone
Blood Loss:obvious, occult, induced bleeding; surgial procedure, anticoagulant use
Morphologic Approach: MCV<80fl MCV<80fl: reduced iron availability, heme synthesis disorder, reduced globin production, low heme;
Morphologic Approach: MCV10-100fl MCV 80-100fl: hemorrhage, anemia of chronic disease, (heymolytic anemia),
Morphologic Approach: MCV>100fl MCV>100fl:reticulytosis, abnormal nucleic acid metabolism, abornamal RBC maturation, EtOH abuse, liver disease, hypothyroidism, abnormal DNA
Clinical Presentation: anemia most patietns asymptomatic, physical/lab exam, symptoms: decreased O2 deliver to tissues: dyspnea, fatigue, palpitations. Severe: lethargy, confusion, arrhythmia, MI. Accute blood loss: dizziness, lethargy, hypotension, shock.
Most common cause of anemia nutritional deficines: iron, vitamin b12, folic acid.
Iron deficiency Anemia Pathophysiology Iron crutial to cell function. Initial stage: reduced iron stores, no change in serum iron levels. Second stage: iron stores depleted. Third stage: Hb below normal value
Iron deficiency anemia iron in body 3-4g, iron losses 1mg/day, blood donation=250mg; Fe2 (heme iron/fish) best absorbed. Fe3 (nonheme/plants) nonabsorbed form present in Western diet. Absorbed in duodenum in proximal jejunum(less extent).
causes of iron deficiency increase demand: growth (children less than 2) pregnancy, lactation
increase loss: blood loss/trauma, peptic ulcer, hemorrhoids, heavy menses, childbirth
decreased intake/absorption: alcoholic, medications
Iron deficiency anemia clinical presentation diet, lifestyle, medications, blood loss considered. Symp: fatigu, pallor (skin pale), koilonychia (spoon nails), pica (craving ice [eating nonfood items]. Colon cancer. Lab: low Hgb, MCV, serum Iron, serum Ferritin; high TIBC
Manage Iron deficiency anemia correct underlyinc cause, reverse hematologic parameters to normal, improve daily function/ quality of life. RDA: Adult 18mg/day Preg: 27mg/day. Therapeutic: 200mg/day 2-3 doses
Iron dietary source: heme iron: meat, fish, poultry (15-35% absorbable). Nonheme iron: veg, fruit, nut, grain, bean, gastric and ascorbic acid increase absorption (200mg Vit C per 30 mg Fe) orange w/iron.
look at oral iron chart page 13
Oral iron various FE formulations/not directly interchangeable. Immediate release, sustained/delayed release (release in Small IN for decreased absorption),combination products. Start low, go slow. Depend on tolerance. Goal 150-200mg elemental iron daily (2-3 dose)
Iron absorption %Fe absorbed decreases as dos increases/absolute amount of Fe absored increases (constipation side effect)
Duration therapy(oral Iron) Hemoglobin change 2-3 weeks, 6-8 weeks to fully ameliorate the anemia. 6 months ot replete iron stores.
Maintenance (oral iron) ensure patient obtains sufficient dietary iron. Supplement 18mg/day/preg 27mg/day.
Oral Iron adverse effects dose related, nausea, ab pain, constipation, metallic taste, green-black stool, liquid formulation stain teeth.
Oral Iron admin Administer on empty stomach 1hr bfore 2hr after meal (food lower absorption); antacid, H2Ra, PPL< Ca-containing food/veverages. Ca2 supplements inhibit adsorption, take w/ orange juice/vit C
Oral iron ADR start low dose, if GI side effects may take with food (meat or vit C), increase fiber and fluids so no constipation, add stool softner when constpitaion, 70% pop perscribed noncopliant b/c GI. keep out of reach of children (fetal posioning)
Failure of Oral Iron malabsorptive state; inflammatory bowel disease; heavy blood loss/gastric bypass; dialysis/cancer patietns on erythropoiesis-stimulating agens
Parenteral iron therapy For: no response/intolerance to oral, excessive/continuing blood loss, inflam bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer patient. Anaphylaxis risk, general estimation of dose needed: Dose (mg)=whole blood HgB deficit (g/dl) x body weight (lb)
Parenteral iron treatment goals/monitoring goals: normalize lab findnigs, resolve symptoms; monitor: monthly Hgb, MCV, TIBC, RDW, serum ferritin, serum iron, decrease in sympt, ADR for tolerability, compliance.
Parenteral iron toxicity excess iron: hemochromatosis associated with iron overload-liver/heart failure. Chelation therapy treat iron overlaod. Small amount lead to fatal overdose in children/pets. products w/ more than 30mg of iron requ packaged in individual dose units.
Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia folic acid=folate=vitamin B9; "megaloblastic anemia"; most common def in US, liver chief storage site (5-10mg) deficiency 3-5months with inadequate intake.
FADA pathophysiology Folate destroyed by cooking/processing; needed for DNA/RNA; Dietary folate is in polyglutamate form (needs to be broken down in small In) once absorbed, dietary folate converted into THF through Vit B12 dep rxn. THF in rxn needed to synthesize p, th, aa
FADA etiology inadequate intake: poor eating, junk food, alcohol consumption, loss in cooking; increased need (preg, malignant, chronic finlam disorder, growth); impaired metabolism(drugs, enzyme def), malabsorption
Med interfering with folic acid metabolism Trimethoprim;methotrexate; pyrimethamine (all decrease/inhib dihydrofolate reductase) and Phenytoin (no folate absoprtion and up utilization)
Dietary source of Folic acid spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, peanuts, peas (raw); grain products fortified w/ folic acid.
FADA clincal presentation diet, lifestyle, med, symptom: asymptomatic, GI(n/v, ab pain, weight loss), sore tongue/ swallowing pain, stomatitis. Lab finding: RBC, Hgb, Reticulocyte, serum folate<-can be false b/c 1-2 days diet change (low); MCV, serum homocysteine (high)
FADA Management correct cause, administer exogenous folic acid. RDA: adult 400 mcg/day, preg 600mcg/day, lact 500mcg/day. Therapeutic dose: 1mg/day pregnant woman deficient get this, women who have had babies with neural tube defects 4mg/day; malabsorption 1-5mg/day
Folic acid 400mcg available otc, 800mcg available otc, 1mg Rx only, prenatal vitamins have higher amnt folic acid vs gen multivitamins. synthetic folic acid absorbed well by GI and converted to THF
Folic acid duration until underlying problem corrected (4 month if cause unknown), long-term therapy may be neded in chronic condition, patient on anticonvulsant can take 500mcg daily to avoid discontinuation of anticonvulsant, perfrom vit B12 study long-term
Folic Acid adverse Effect well-tolerated, water solube (excess excreted), rarely hypersensitive, rarely CNS effect and only high dose
Folic Acid patient info take w/ or w/o food, eat healthy, med well tolerated, miss a dose, take soon as possible or skip.
Folic acid Treatment goal/monitoring Goal: normalize lab findings, resolve sign and symp. Monitor: monthly Hgb, MCV, serum folate, serum homocysteine, decrease fatigue, pallor, glossitis, asses compliance.
Folic Acid toxicity water soluble…not a thin. CNS effects at 15mg/day for 30 days (irritability/depression) no one should be taking this anyway
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia profile vitamin b12=cobalamin, vernacular "megaloblastic anemia", increased risk with age, several reyars to develop, stores are large 50% liver, symptoms before hematologic changes, neurologic damage progressive/permanent if no treatment
Vitamin B12 Def pathophysiology water soluble, exogenous, for neurologic system +fatty acid biosynthesis +energy prod, B12 in protein and undergos peptic digestion in acidid evnironment of stomach, duodenum free B12 combinds with B12 binder. B12 absorbed at terminal ileum, build DNA/RNA
Vitamin B12 Def etiology inadequate intake (rare)=vegans, alcoholics, elderly; Malabsorption(most common)=loss of intrinsic factor, GI disorder, B12 competition, durg interaction/effect. Inadequate utilization
Medications interfer wiht VIt B12 prolonged PPI or H2RA use (impaired release of B12 no gastric acid secretion); Metformin 10-30% patient receiving metformin, reduced b12 absorption due to cal-dependent ileal mem antagonism, can be reversed with supplemental calcium
Dietary source of Vit B12 meat, poultry, eggs, dairy
Vitamin B12 Def Clinical Prsentation patietn age, diet, lifestyle, med. SYmp: fatigue, dizzy, dyspnea, paresthesias, numb, weak, impaired memory, children: poor brain development. Lab: RBC, Hgb, Reticulocyte, Serum B12 (low); MCV, Serum homocysteine/methylmalonate (high)
Vitamin B12 Def Management goals Goal: reverse hematologic manifestation, replace body stores, prevent/resolve neurologic manifestation, treat cause. RDA: adult 2mcg/day; Preg/lact: 2.6mcg/day
Vitamin B12 dosage Dose depends on route: oral: 1000-2000mcg/day; available OTC; IM/deep subcutaneous: 1000mcg daily/ 1 week. weekly 1 month, monthly maintain. 10% retained.
Vitamin B12 duration/ adverse effects duration: pernicious anemia=life, until underlying problem fixed
Ad effect: well tolerated, local injection site rxn, hyperuricemia and hypkalemia uncommon, rare hypersensitivity.
Vitamin B12 patient info asses injection tech, eat health and balanced, no double dose, well tolerated, compliance, drug interaction with COLCHINCINE AND ETHANOL
Vitamin B12 monitoring monthly: Hgb, MCV, serum homocysteine, serum methylmalonate, serum B12, resolution of nuerologica ymp, fatigue, pallor; improve 1-3 days; neruologic sym may take severl months, correct blood count 2 months, ensure compliance
combination products Ferrex-150 Forte (RX only)/Multigen (rx only) (see side page 35)

Test One Quiz 1301 History

Question Answer
How did Native Americans get here? ice bridge which is now the Bering Straits
What compelled them to do so? They was following there food source
What is the Neolithic Revolution? invention of farming, 9,000 B.C., most important event in mankind's history
How did the Neolithic Revolution allow Native Americans to advance their civilizations? gave them a stable food supply so they could develop the Hallmark's of Civilization
Can you give examples of their advancement? Hallmarks of Civilization – permanent buildings, art, architecture, science and music
Why did the Viking colonies fail? failed because of the little Ice Age (1000-1300 AD) food problems, malnutrition and plague and constant warfare….death
What developments in Europe allowed for exploration and colonization efforts? Centralization of political power-single monarch
What motives drove the various expedition of Portugal? find a new trade route to ake money
Why were Ferdinand and Isabella so anxious to fund Columbus’ expedition? they saw Portugal making $$ they wanted some, looking for a different route West to China
What drove the Conquistadors’ endeavors? The three G's Gold, Glory, God
What elements of Spain’s success encouraged other European nations to colonize? Spain claimed southwest and southeast chunks by the expeditions, French and England want to claim parts of the new world also
Identify the Spanish expeditions of the Southwest US and their importance. De Vaca Estabanico-landed in Houston, info about Texas; De Soto-Florida gets to kansas-buffalo; Ponce de Leon-Florida, Balboa 1st to cross Central america see the pacific, Cortez- Mexico found gold Aztec Village
What was the main export from the New World to France? fur (Cartier in Canada) La Salle- Great Lakes and Mississipi river valley
How did this influence French relations with the Indians? able to trade fur for supplies they need ????????????????????????????????
Why did the English fail to colonize after the Cabot expeditions? politics and religion instability, Henry VIII has 5 wives, Edward VI-short reign dies, Daughter Queen Mary-bloody intolerant,
Why did Henry VIII break from the Roman Catholic Church? the pope wouldn't allow him to divorce Catherine his wife who he blamed for not having a son
What factors made colonization of the New World become attractive to the English in the 1570s? land shortage among upper and middle class, Spain destroyed Antwerp (textiles) cause investment vacuum money to go to colonies instead, Need to dilute strength of Spanish Navy- constant threat of War -Navy split across Atlantic
Why did Sir Humphrey Gilbert champion English colonization of the New World? poor people and religious minorities
Erik the Red 985 AD went to Greenland, first to discover the americas 1st viking colonies
Leif the Red son of Erik, went to Vinland (Finland) 1st viking colonies
Little Optimum 800-1000 AD- warming period during the period Vikings settled into The Americas – Greenland and Finland
Silk Road connects Europe to Far East- trade route, mediterranean across middle east through Iran through Afghanistan and other stans into India and finally into China . treacherous route go through plague, warlords, dangerous areas
Hernan Cortes Went to Mexico, found gold in Aztec village, 3 years and small pox and Aztec fell, gold was ripped off walls and melted. All Aztec books were burned
Jacques Cartier French Explorer in 1534 looking for gold but found Fur (Beaver, deer and bear) in Canada ……near gulf of St. Lawrence down to Montreal
La Salle French explorer 1670-1680s who went to Great Lakes and Mississippi river (french claim) lots of stuff and maps survived, he was bipolar and men killed him in his down cycle in Texas, ship was pulled out and preserved in Bob Bullock,
Elizabeth I reigns for 45 years, takes everything back to Church of England but is tolerant of other religions. Now political stability and religiously stable so COLONIZATION can happen again. England was late to the game until Elizabeth came to power and stabilized
Sir Walter Raleigh 1585 Roanoke Colony off Cost of North Carolina, 1587-90 cut off from England, half brother of Sir humphrey Gilbert carried on his mission of poor and religious minorities
Roanoke Colony colony established in 1585 coast of North Carolina, established by Sir Walter Raleigh, cut-off from England 1587-90
What is the formula for mercantilism?
blueprint for Global Economic Empire, commercial outpost, colonist workers, product. These three things added together makes success makes $$$
What is the chief purpose of this system? make $$$$, become independent economically
Identify the characteristics of the mercantile system. each empire is CLOSED (for example Spanish colonies trade only with Spain), Monocultural- one main cash product/crop (ex VA. Tobacco) JOINT STOCK COMPANIES-colonies are expensive, sell stock to invest in colony
What was the chief problem with colonizing America and what was the inventive solution to that problem? colonies are expensive, Joint Stock Companies were the solution to pay for the conlonies, stock is sold to invest in colonies,
What problems did the colonists encounter at Jamestown? diseases, climate and food problems (mosquitos-malaria) (cold)
Why did the Virginia Company reform the Jamestown charter? not making a profit, settlers morale down, lots of deaths and no say in governing
What were the provisions of these reforms? 1. headright system-pay your own passage-50 acres, 2. indentured servant system passage-7 years labor 3. limited self-government-elect council, pass laws House of Burgesses 1619
Why were these reforms important to Jamestown and other early settlements? it increased the population and increased their survival, jamestown full more settlements
What events in Jamestown finally curtailed the mortality rate? tobacco product, more stability, more people coming due to reforms increased population and survival
monocultures one main cash product/crop, example in Virginia was tobacco
Jamestown 1st successful colony in Virginia 1607, along Chesapeake Bay, John Smith took over 1608 and helped them
John Smith English Adventurer who took over Jamestown in 1608, said "He who shall not work shall not eat" wanted colonists to work hard, saved by Pocahontas
Seasoning time the period of time a newcomer to Virginia needed to adjust to the colony's climate and health conditions, 1/2 the people died in the first year. If you survived the first or second year considered seasoned
Why did the Scrooby Congregation leave England for Holland? went to Holland because it was religiously tolerant,
Why did they leave Holland for America? not financially successful so they left Holland and then signed up with Joint Stock Company Virginia Company and ended up in Massachusetts
For what reasons were English Puritans dissatisfied with James I and Charles I? James I and Charles I did not like Puritans and had them jailed for preaching, Puritans also did not like the Inter-marriages .Kings were marrying their children off to Catholics so Puritans left in record numbers
How did Massachusetts Bay maintain firm control over their colony? John Winthrop restricted the vote to Puritan males (keep religiously straight) and had very harsh punishments so they could keep God happy due to the Covenant
Why did they do so? They did it to make sure they fulfilled the Covenant of the Old Testament, They believed that God would bless them if they followed God's rules (just like Israel). Called themselves "New Israel" they are chosen ones
Be familiar with Puritan concept of covenant. Israel-God will bless and protect- in return Obey the law, whenever there was a drought or famine someone had to be blamed for disobeying to cause it. This is why sin was punished harshly
How did it influence their form of government? very harsh government, sin punished, branded if lie, sexual sin punished very harshly, Tithingment could poke around your house to make sure you were following the law and take kids away from you
Identify the challenges presented to Puritan doctrines by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson. went against Puritans- Roger Williams-state power can't regulate or force religious belief ( debated arrested and escaped founded Providence) Ann Hutchinson-thought can have a relationship with God without going through minister, kicked out
How did the Pequot War set a pattern for future English-Indian wars? 1. targeting civilians on both sides 2. Indians turn on eachother (Puritans used Narragansett tribe to fight Pequot- later used another tribe to fight Narragansett)
What factors prevented the Indians from driving the English out of America? Because the Indian tribes turned on each other and fought with Puritans against eachother they weren't able to drive the Puritans out. If they banded together they could have
Identify why there are two different phases of English colonization of the North American continent. Civil war in England halts and reverses migration, some go back to fight with parliament and Cavaliers from Virginia and Maryland go back to support King Charles I
Who were the original settlers of New York? Dutch colony wichi was called New Amsterdam, fur trade, lots of diversity-
Dutch, English , French, Germans, Swedes, Freed Blacks
What factors would lead to the British conquest of New York? problem is Dutch didn't let you own your own land and English did. When English invaded the New Yorkers practically surrended to English hoping for better life than with Dutch, only fired a couple shots
What was the original intent for the founding of Georgia? James Oglethorpe ideas- poor people make a fresh start
What restrictions did the colonists complain about? Oglethorpe didn't allow slaves wanted people to work for themselves, didn't allow RUM (cheap liquor he thought would cause people to be drunk and not work), No self-government (all other colonies had some form)
Scrooby Congregation religious group who left England for Holland due to religious tolerance, but weren't profitable so signed up with Virginia Company and went on the Mayflower and ended up in Massachusetts- Plymouth Bay Colony was founded, arrived 6 weeks before winter
John Winthrop, Early Puritan father of Massachusetts, 4th son so moved, tried to keep firm control by restricting vote, fulfill the covenant so strict and harsh punishments
William Bradford Governor of Plymouth Bay Colony on and off for 50 years, dealt with Indians, Virginia company and religious problems (1st colony of Massachusetts)
tithingmen Puritan people from church would come into your house and go through your stuff to make sure you were doing the right thing religiously, they could take your children away and put them with a different family
William Penn Quaker, rich and highly educated, in prison 2 years for religious beliefs, friends with King Charles who gave him Pennsylvania in 1681 to start a colony
James Oglethorpe Settled in Georgia, wanted poor people to make a fresh start for themselves, didn't want slaves, no rum, only sons can inherit land, no self-government, problem with colonists over these rules, he was kicked out and Georgia went back to Crown government
What were the provisions of the Navigation Act? Two requirements 1)English Built Ships 2) 3/4 of crew must be English men
What were the provisions of the Staple Act? All imports and exports from English Colonies MUST pass through English merchants. The reason was so taxes could be paid to English Crown.
Why did James II set up the Dominion of New England? New government for the Puritan Colonies for the purpose of crushing the Puritans because they kept avoiding the rules. Put mean guy Sir Edmond Andres in charge who increased taxes, seized property of troublemaker puritans and dissolved titles of land
What actions of James led to the Glorious Revolution? Parliament overthrew James II because he tried to get back the powers that Charles I had (before he was executed) parliament didn't like this because they told Charles II when they brought him in he would not have those powers
Identify Spain’s reasons for attempting to assimilate Indians into society. Christianity and Labor, Indians became the "border patrol" to keep the English out of Florida, They were given weapons to keep the English out.
Why did the Spanish allow Indians to settle in Spanish Florida? They allowed the Indians to settle in Spanish Florida in order to isolate the English
Identify the causes behind Bacon’s Rebellion and the course of the war. Land shortages caused the rebellion, during 1660 the Restoration more people were coming to the colonies, dividing the land colonists on one side and indians on the other didn't work anymore, Bacon attacked Indians, Jamestown burned
What factor turned it from a race war to an economic one? Bacon dies and army falls apart because there are no funds, Indians are pushed out farther. (struggle between Bacon and Berkley)
Identify the causes of King Phillip’s War. same as Virginia, Civil War decreases de-migration, Restoration increases migration, land shortages, then John Sassanon 1/2 English 1/2 Wampanoag said that King Philip was preparing for war, he was found dead and 3 Wampanoag were tried and executed
What was the Course of the King Phillips War (part 1) 1675 major conflict between Wampanoug and Puritans, starts badly for puritans, Wampanoug are strong survived small pox , no Indians helped the Puritans (Narragannsett fought Puritans also), most of Mass. is burned by Indians, Rhode Is. destroyed
What was the Course of the King Phillips War (part 2) Puritans were outgunned and out supplied by the Indians. Ultimately the Indians run out of food and weapons after a year Indians lose the war.
Identify how primogeniture escalated tensions between Salem Town and Salem Village Salem Village was Non primogeniture so land was divided up. ex 1000 acres divided by 5 sons, then divided each generation. too much competition drives prices down so they get poorer and poorer. Salem town had primogeniture so got wealthier caused problems
What is primogeniture land cannot be divided in inheritances
So how did primogeniture lead to accusations of witchcraft? Salem Village being poorer due to dividing their land up driving prices down accused Salem Towns people of Witchcraft
According to Puritans, what was the place of women in society? Puritans believe a woman was to be married and have a husband,
Explain how deviations from this might lead to accusations of witchcraft. Widows, women with own source of money and over 40 years old or those with un-Puritan behavios were accused of witchcraft
What was the leading factor in the accusations against men? common factor for men related to a woman who was accused
Tituba Indian slave who did black magic- voodoo, children were bewitched, Titube confesses, accusations, more confessions. She was indian then 1/2 black and then all black according to story, witchcraft began with her, she told them exotic stories
Spectral evidence one type of evidence that someone was a witch. It could be anything. If you had a fight with your neighbor and then you fell down the stairs your neighbor was a witch, if you dreamed your neighbor was a witch then he was
For what reasons were slaves needed in the New World?

What was the basis of slavery in antiquity? Why did this change in the 7th century?
Initially, why were the English not inclined to use slaves?
How did conditions in Virginia reinforce this?
Why was the status of blacks in the colonies uncertain for so long?
What caused their status as slaves to be confirmed?
Identify the reasons for the increase of blacks in the colonies after the 1680s.
Identify the three geographic areas of slavery in North America, which areas have the fewest and most slaves and how those factors contributed to slaves retention of their original heritage?
Identify the methods of slave resistance.
Why did Spain allow escaped slaves to live in Spanish Florida?
Why did escaped slaves avoid the interior?
Stono Rebellion
Identify the reasons for the end of the witch trials. Governor of Massachusets ordered it to be dissolved because his wife was accused of being a witch.
What are some of the possibilities for the witch hysteria as discussed in class? Economic Theory, Afflicted Girls Theory, Uppity Women Theory
explain mindset regarding the Salem Witch Trials mindset- goes back to the covenant, puritans obey law- god protects, God isn't protecting because King Phillips war, less political power (non-puritans can vote), decrease economy, increase of taxes (Dominion of New England)
explain precedence regarding the Salem Witch Trials Witchcraft had happened before- it was not new to Massachusetts. 1645-England 200+ executed, 1674-Connecticut 18 executed
explain women regarding the Salem Witch Trials Women were more likely to witch it up, 700 years catholic and protestant churches had been teaching this, they are more passionate, more easily decived etc. from quotes during that period
Explain the Economic Theory of Witchcraft centered around primogeniture, Salem Town practiced primogeniture and Salem Village did not. In Salem Village land was divided with each generation and competition drove prices down making them poorer. This tension between caused accusations of witchcraft
Explain the Afflicted Girls Theory of Witchcraft Girls between the age of 11-25 years, mostly 14 y.o. who were servants, orphans and poor had no power or prestige used the witch craft to get attention. One girl admitted to this.
Explain the Uppity Women Theory of Witchcraft Puritans believed the woman's place was husband/wife marriage only. Those that had Un-puritan behaviors were accused of witchcraft. Widows, women with own source of money and women over 40 frequently accused of witchcraft

chapter 11 terms

Term Definition
shell is portion of the os that relates to user and to applications
kernel responsible of interacting with hardware
user mode an interface between an app and the os and only has acess to hardware resorces through the code running in kernel mode
kernel mode has more power to communicate with hardware devices then the shell has.
HAL (Hardware abstraction layer) layer closest to the hardware
executive services a group of services operate in the kernel mode between the user mode and the HAL.
process is a program that is running under the authority of the shell, together with the system resources assigned to it.
thread a single task such as printing a file
task manager lets you view the applications and process running on your computer
administrative tools used by technicians and developers to support windows.
system configuration you can disable startup programs that are not so good working
clean boot a process of starting windows with a basic set of drivers
services console control the windows and third-party services installed on a system
computer management contains several tools that can be used to manage the local computer or other computers on the network
console consolidates several windows administrative tools.
Microsoft management cable (mmc) windows utility t that can be used to build your own customized console windows.
snap-ins a windows utility that cab installed in a console window.
event viewer can find events like bad shutdowns of network failure
print management utility in administrative tools group of control panel
task scheduler can have a program open at a certain time that you specify before hand
performance monitor is a Microsoft management console snap-in
reliability and performance monitor earlier version of performance monitor
registry editor a windows utility used to edit the windows registry
registry a database designed with treelike structure that contains configuration information for window, users, software applications, and installed hardware devices
hklm most important key and contains hardware software and security data
hkcc contains information that ids each hardware device installed on the computer
hkcr stores info that determines wich application is opened when the user double clicks the file
hku contains data about all users and is taken from the DEFAULT hive
hkcu contains data on the current user
resolution the number of horizontal and vertical pixels on build in to a screen
native resolution optimal resolution the monitor was designed to support
refresh rate the number of times the monitor refreshes the screen per second
multiple monitor orientation when the display does not accurately represent the relative positions of multiple monitors
multiple monitor misalignment when the display is staggered across multiple monitors
multiple monitor taskbar the option to extend the desktop across both monitor
directx a microsoft software development tool that software developers can use to write multimedia app.
dxdiag.exe display info for direct x
reliability monitor find out changes were made around the that time and what other problems occurred

Bronchohygiene final

Question Answer
Physiology of airway clearance: what is necessary for normal airway clearance/requires? Patent airway, functional mucociliary escalator, effective cough-(to move mucus from lower to upper airway)
What are the four phases of a normal cough? Irritation, inspiration, compression, expulsion
What happens during the irritation phase of a normal cough? Abnormal stimuli provoke sensory fibers, afferent impulses travel via the internal laryngeal nerve, efferent impulses travel back to glottis, external intercostals, diaphragm and other major inspiratory and expiratory muscles to generate a cough
What happens during the inspiration phase of a normal cough? Brain generates signal=respiratory muscles initiate deep inspiration. Diaphragm/External intercostals contract creating negative pressure around lungs,Air rushes into the lungs to equalize pressure. Adult inspiration averages 1 to 2 L
What happens during the compression phase of a normal cough? Glottis closes/vocal chords contract=shut the larynx, expiratory muscles contract=rapid increase pleural & Alveolar pressure> 100mmHG
What happens during the expulsion phase of a normal cough? Glottis opens producing a large pressure gradient between the alveoli and airway opening, with continued contraction of expiratory muscles, patient gradient causes a violent, Expulsive flow of air from the lungs
What happens during the expulsion phase of a normal cough?(continued) Velocities as high as 100 mph, mucus and foreign material are expelled from the lower airways to the upper airway, where they can be expectorated or swallowed.
What stimuli can provoke a cough? Inflammation/infection, mechanical/foreign body, chemical/irritant gases, thermal/cold air
Causes of impaired mucociliary clearance in intubated patients? Endotracheal/tracheostomy tube, tracheobronchial suction, inadequate humidification, high FI02 values, drugs, general anesthetics, opiates, narcotics, underlying pulmonary diseases
Chest physiotherapy define? Refers to a diverse group of techniques designed to improve respiratory efficiency by mobilizing secretions, preventing or reversing atelectasis, enhancing the efficiency & condition of respiratory muscles
What are the goals of bronchial hygiene? To mobilize & remove retained secretions, improve gas exchange, decrease work of breathing (acute/chronic conditions)
What are the goals for chest physiotherapy? To remove bronchial secretions to the central airways via: gravity(postural drainage), external manipulation of the chest(percussion), eliminate secretions by cough(cough assistance) or aspirations w/catheter
What factors should be considered in assessing the need for airway clearance therapy? History pulmonary problems causing increased secretions, admission for upper abdominal/thoracic surgery, consider:age, history COPD, obesity, nature/duration procedure, anesthesia type, presences artificial airways, CXR(atelectasis/infiltrates), PFT/ABG
What are the indications that a patient is retaining secretions? Lack sputum production (unproductive/ineffective cough), labored breathing, fever, increased crackles & rhonchi, wheezing or diminished breath sounds
What are the primary objectives/purpose for turning? Promote lung expansion, improve oxygenation, prevent retention of secretions; reduction in venostasis, prevention of skin ulcers
What are the absolute contraindications for turning? Unstable spinal cord injuries, traction of arm abductors, severe diarrhea, marked agitation, rise in ICP, large drop in BP, worsening dyspnea, hypoxia, cardiac arrhythmias
What are the absolute contraindications for postural drainage? Unstable head or neck injury, active hemorrhage with unstable hemodynamics
What are the "plumbing" problems associated with turning? Ventilator disconnection, accidental extubation, accidental aspiration of ventilator circuit condensate, disconnection of vascular lines or urinary catheter
What can be caused by mucus plugging? Atelectasis, impaired O2 secondary to shunting
When is manual vibration applied during the breath? Limited to the application during exhalation
Diaphragmatic breathing?
Helps increase contractile force of abdominal muscles, on inspiration distended abdomen to lower the diaphragm/expand the lungs, expiration flatten abdomen/withdraw diaphragm up to improve the strength of exhalation
Forced expiratory technique (FET)/ Huff cough? 1-2 forced expiration-middle to lower lung volumes rapidly expels air through open glottis. Open glottis helps minimize increases in pleural pressure lessons bronchiolar collapse. Patient phonate "huff/who"during expiration. (Emphysema,CF,bronchiectasis)
Manual cough technique? Used patients with spinal cord injuries/in disease states where abdominal muscles are weak, Place Palm's on patient's abdomen below diaphragm,patient take 3deep breath's, on exhalation third breath push forcefully inward/upward as patient coughs
Active cycle of breathing sequence? Breathing control, 3/4 thoracic expansions, breathing control, 3/4 thoracic expansions, breathing control, 1/2 FET, breathing control
Autogenic drainage phases? 1.Unsticking , 2.collection, 3.evacuating
What diseases are associated with chronic production of large volumes of sputum that would benefit from chest physiotherapy/CPT? CF, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, ciliary dyskinetic syndrome
What volume is required for airway clearance to be used? (Sputum) 25-30ml/day
What are the hazard/complications postural drainage? Hypoxemia, increased ICP, acute hypotension, pulmonary hemorrhage, pain/injury, vomiting, aspirations, bronchospasm, arrhythmias
Regarding hazards/complications of PDT, how would you handle them? Monitor patients: HR,RR,BP, breath sounds, ICP, 02 saturation, LOC, skin color, pain levels, sputum production
How long should each postural drainage position be maintained? 3 to 15 minutes
What would indicate successful outcomes of PDT? Changes/improved: sputum production, breath sounds, patient's subjective response to therapy, vital signs, chest radiograph, ABG's/O2 saturation, ventilator variables
What areas should percussion therapy not be performed on? Spots of injuries or recent surgeries
Positive air pressure adjuncts contraindications? Increased WOB, ICP>20mmHg, hemodynamic instability, acute sinusitis, active hemoptysis, untreated pneumothorax, epistaxis, recent facial/oral/skull/esophageal surgery, nausea
Positive expiratory pressure involves? Involves active expiration against variable flow resistance, move secretions into larger airways, improving ventilation under aerated segments, preventing airway collapse during expiration
What pressure should be reached during PEP therapy? 10 to 20 cmH2O
Oscillation define? Rapid, vibratory movement of small volumes of air back and forth in the respiratory tract
High frequency compression/oscillation vest airway clearance system parts? Variable air post generator, inflatable vest that covers the patients torso
What is intrapulmonary percussive ventilation? Pneumatic device that delivers a series of pressurized mini burst at rate of 100 to 225 cycles per minute (1.6-3.75Hz) via mouthpiece
Brand names of airway oscillating devices? Flutter valve, quake, acapella

plural nouns

singular plural
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RE Prin Chp. 18

Question Answer
The legal process that results in a tenant's being physically removed from the leased premises actual eviction
The transfer in writing of interest in a bond, mortgage, lease, or other instrument. assignment
Actions of a landlord that so materially disturb or impair a tenant's enjoyment of the leased premises that the tenant is effectively forced to move out and terminate the lease without liabilty for further rent Constructive eviction
An estate that gives the lessee the right to possession until the estate is terminated by either party; the term of the estate is indefinite. estate (tenancy) at will
An interest for a certain, exact period of time in property leased for a specified consideration estate (tenancy) for years
An interest in leased property that continues from period to period–week to week, month to month, or year to year. estate (tenancy) from period to period
A lease of property according to which a landlord pays all property charges regularly incurred through ownership, such as repairs, taxes, insurance, and operating expenses. Most residential leases are gross leases. gross lease
A lease of land only, on which the tenant usually owns a building or is required to build as specified in the lease. Such leases are usually long-term net leases; the tenant's rights and obligations continue until the lease expires or is terminated throug ground lease
A tenancy in which a lessee retains possession of leased property after the lease has expired and the landlord, by continuing to accept rent, agrees to the tenant's continueed occupancy as defined by state law. holdover tenancy
A written or oral contract between a landlord (the lessor) and a tenant (lessee) that transfer the right to exclusive possession and use of the landlord's real property to the lessee for specified period of time and for a stated consideration (rent). By lease
The purchase of real property, the consummation of which is preceded by a lease, usually long term, that is typically done of tax or financing purposes lease purchase
A tenant's right to occupy real estat during the term of a lease, generally considered a personal property interest, although a long-term lease may be eligible for treatment as real property for financing purposes. leasehold estate
tenant lessee
landlord lessor
A periodic tenancy under which the tentant rents for one month at a time. In the absence of a rental agreement (oral or written), a tenancy is generally considered to be month to month month to month tenancy
net lease
nondisturbance clause
percentage lease
purchase option
renewal option
reversionary right
right of first refusal
security deposit