Science Vocab Ch. 18

Term Definition
Ecology The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment.
Biotic Describes living factors in the environment.
Abiotic Describes the nonliving part of the environment, including water, rocks, light, and temperatures.
Population A group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area.
Community All the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other.
Ecosystem A community of organisms and their abiotic environment.
Biosphere The part of Earth where life exists.
Herbivore An organism that eats only plants.
Carnivore An organism that eats animals
Omnivore An organism that eats both plants and animals
Food Chain The pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms.
Food Web A diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in a ecosystem.
Energy Pyramid A triangle diagram that shows an ecosystem's loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystem's food chain.
Photosynthesis The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
Decomposers An organisms that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients.
Scarvengers Are omnivores that eat dead plants and animals.
Consumers An organisms that eats other organisms or organic matter.
Producers An organisms that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings.
Carrying Capacity The largest population that an environment can support at any given time.
Prey An organism that is killed and eaten by another organisms.
Predator An organisms that eats all or part of another organisms.
Symbiosis A relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other.
Mutualism A relationship between two organisms in which one organisms benefits and the other is unaffected.
Commensalism A relationship between two organisms is which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
Parasitism A relationship between two species in which one species, the parasite, benefits from the other species, the host, which is harmed.
Coevolution The evolution of two species that is due to mutual influence, often in a way that makes the relationship more beneficial to both species.
Limiting Factor A resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a population.
Competition When two or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource, such as food, water, shelter, space, or sunlight .
Camouflage Blending in with the background.
Pollinator An organism that carries pollen from one flower to another.

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